1. State and explain briefly the ACID properties.
2. Write a note on serializability.
3. What do you understand by transactions and schedules? State the different types of errors arising due to interleaving transactions.
4. What is a transaction? Why does a DBMS interleave the actions of different transactions instead of executing transactions one after the other?
5. What must a user guarantee with respect to a transaction and database consistency? What should a DBMS guarantee with respect to concurrent execution of several transactions and database consistency?
6. Explain the strict two-phase locking protocol.
7.Explain the following terms briefly: (a) attribute, (b) domain, (c) entity, (d) relationship, (e) entity set, (f) relationship set, (g) one-to-many relationship, (i) many-to-many relationship, (j) participation constraint, (k) overlap constraint, (l) weak entity set, (m) aggregation, and (n) role indicator
8.Define these terms: atomicity, consistency, isolation, durability, schedule, blind write, dirty read, unrepeatable read, serializable schedule, recoverable schedule, avoids-cascading-aborts schedule.
9. What is a system catalog? What information is stored in system catalog? OR What is a data dictionary or catalog table?
10. Describe three techniques commonly used when developing algorithms for relational operators. Explain how these techniques can be used to design algorithms for the selection, projection, and join operators. OR Explain the evaluation algorithms for relational operators of selection, projection and join.
11. What is the goal of query optimization? Why is optimization important?
12. What is a transaction? In what ways is it different from an ordinary program (such as a C program)?
13. Explain the general format of loops in PL/SQL.
14. State and explain cursor attributes (PL/SQL).
15. State the properties of decomposition. Explain any one.
16. What does the lock manager do? Explain the types of locks offered by the lock manager.
17. Explain the functioning in Redo plan in ARIES.
18. Write a short note on deadlocks.
19. What is closure set of functional dependency?
20. Explain FDs in third normal form.
21. What is transaction in Oracle? Explain transaction management commands in SQL.
22. With respect to schedule, define the terms: conflict equivalent, and conflict serializable.
23. State the different relational operators and explain any two.
24 Explain the concept of transaction and schedule with examples.
25 Write in brief about analysis phase of ARIES
26 What is the need for decomposition? Explain lossless property of decomposition.